How CNA Professors Are Selected

Activities to Support Faculty and Curriculum Change Present data about need for curriculum change

Engage faculty in discussion about the possibility of curriculum change

Stimulate faculty discussion about frustrations and disappointments experienced within the current curriculum Initiate faculty discussion to identify features of the current curriculum they dislike

Continue discussion about the need for curriculum change engage faculty in consideration of the benefits of curriculum change

Use guided imagery for faculty to imagine how they will feel when an up-to- date, well-received curriculum is in place

Share ideas about the effects of avoiding curriculum change on students, graduates, school of nursing, and educational institution.   Initiate deliberations among faculty and dean or director about the possibility of removing barriers to faculty involvement in curriculum development

Review school and university mission and goals and how strongly the current curriculum supports mission and goals Plan discussion about faculty values related to education, nursing practice, and profession

Identify initial faculty development needs

Minimize barriers and maximize resources for faculty and curriculum development

Obtain agreement from the Total Faculty Group to proceed with curriculum development

Declare administrator support publicly Announce curriculum development plans to stakeholders Appoint curriculum leader Form Steering and Advisory Committees Initiate faculty development activities Establish committees and obtain agreement from members to achieve goals.

Activities to Support Faculty and Curriculum Change

•             Develop critical path

•             Institute mentorship

•             Provide positive feedback to individuals and committees

•             Provide rewards for faculty and curriculum development activities (e.g., public acknowledgment and praise, credit toward promotion and tenure)

•             Celebrate achievement of major milestones of critical path

•             Continue formal and informal faculty development and support (e.g., teaching circles, lunch discussions, on-line discussion groups, peer feedback)

•             Use new terminology

•             Introduce aspects of new curriculum into old curriculum

•             Mentor novices

•             Continue faculty development activities focused on faculty self-identified needs

•             Identify and acknowledge experts in school of nursing

•             Conduct a funeral for the old curriculum

Continue faculty development based on experiences in testing new behaviors and implementing new curriculum

•             Structure formal evaluation of faculty and courses to be congruent with new curriculum

•             Disseminate information about the new curriculum to:

•             Academic and professional com-munities

•             Prospective students

•             Launch new curriculum with a public celebration

•             Ask for counter-examples of effective strategies if objections arise or reversion to former curriculum occurs

•             Encourage peer groups to support new faculty behaviors and curriculum impel-mentation

•             Continue peer faculty development and support activities through group activities and mentorship

•             Schedule formal faculty development for aspects of curriculum implementation that is problematic. Focus on shared problem-solving.

Empowering The Nursing Career Forward

Empowerment of Faculty development has the potential to empower faculty and benefit the school of nursing in ways that extend beyond the tasks of developing and implementing a new curriculum. Rosa Beth Moss Kantar (1977) asserts that power (ability to get work done) in organizations is derived from both formal positions and from alliances with superiors, peers, and subordinates. Alliances form the basis of cooperation to get the work done. Formal and informal power gives access to opportunity, resources, information, and support. These, in turn, influence employees in positive ways, leading to increased self-efficacy, motivation, organizational commitment, perceived autonomy, perceptions of participative management, and job satisfaction. Burnout is decreased. Employees derive achievement, respect, and cooperation. As well, clients of the organization are satisfied. This theory is relevant for faculty development in schools of nursing.

Within a curriculum development context in schools of nursing, those with formal power are the nursing dean or director, the curriculum leader, and to a lesser extent, those chosen to chair committees. However, many alliances form as work progresses and faculty members derive power from these. More directly, faculty development is a means to provide opportunity, resources, information, and support to faculty, so they can achieve a new curriculum and derive the benefits of it.

Empirical evidence about staff online cna classes empowerment supports Kantar’s (1977) theory (Finnegan & Laschinger, 2001; Laschinger, Finnegan, & Shaman, 2001; Laschinger, Finnegan, Shaman, & Wilk, 2001). The theory has also been tested with cna classes online educators. Access to opportunity is the most empowering factor for clinical and college nurse educators (Davies, 2002; Sarmiento, Laschinger, & Iasi, 2004). Among college educators, empowering environments lead to decreased burnout and increased job satisfaction (Sarmiento, et al.). Unfortunately, college educators view their work environments as only moderately empowering (Erwin, 1999).

Faculty development is needed to support and empower faculty during curriculum development. Planned faculty development demonstrates the schools commitment to faculty and their professional growth, empowers faculty, enhances job satisfaction, and is a means to support change.

Goals for Faculty Development Related to Curriculum Development

“Most faculty development programs are directed toward improving scholarship under the assumption that increased or updated knowledge in faculty’s subject fields will lead to improvement in course content” (Dunkley, 1994). However, this is not sufficient when curriculum development is being undertaken. Faculty development goals related to curriculum redesign and development are essentially four-fold. These include enhancing knowledge and skills about curriculum development, and as Bevis (2000) describes, changing views of curriculum, roles and relationships, and teaching approaches. All the aforementioned goals are equally important and are achieved synergistically.

Enhancing Knowledge and Skills about Curriculum Development Knowledge about the curriculum development process varies among faculty members and other stakeholders. Some will know a great deal; others will be familiar with details of course planning, but not with the larger process. Likely, many will have learning needs related to the developing curriculum. To make certain that the curriculum development process is smooth, faculty development focused specifically on developing a curriculum is necessary. Knowledge of the total process will lead to an appreciation of the time required for curriculum development, work accomplished by task groups, and importance of shared understandings and consensus. Moreover, detailed information about each aspect of curriculum development will allow task groups to develop their critical paths and ensure work is completed in the manner required.

Changing View of Curriculum Another goal for faculty development is acceptance of a different perception of curriculum and learning. In the past, learning was generally accepted as simply a change in behavior, dependent on content. Currently, learning is seen as evolving from transactions and interactions between and among students and teachers, which culminate from the curriculum. This latter connotation is less reliant on content, more oriented to the process of nursing, and is a more egalitarian view of curriculum, with “teaching goals… [That] led to creative and critical thinking, strategizing, and methods of inquiry consistent with learner maturity” (Bevis, 2000, p. 123). Although many online cna courses educators have enthusiastically endorsed this perspective over the last two decades, faculty could consider other approaches. For example, curricula could be conceived phenomenological, ethically, narratively, contextually, or clinically. Whichever approach to curriculum is adopted, it is important to facilitate faculty members’ understanding about the selected view and provide faculty development op-opportunities such as workshops, conferences, and mentoring to assist them in designing curricula reflecting the new view.

Changing Roles and Relationships a change in faculty roles could be a consequence of a new or revised curriculum, and this would mean altered relationships with students, colleagues, administrators, and clients. The role change might involve a shift in power, equity, and authority, depending on the philosophical approaches and goals of the curriculum. Faculty facing new and/or revised roles resulting from curriculum change can be helped through faculty development activities which incorporate sensitivity training, sharing, nurturing, and consciousness raising (Wheeler, & Chinn, 1989).

Changing Teaching Approaches a realistic goal of faculty development is to encourage cna online classes educators to become more aware of how they teach, and how they might teach more effectively. To help them do so, activities (e.g., role playing, case studies, practice teaching and critiques, videos or films with discussion), as well as psychological support.